小编典典

在Android中获取用户位置的好方法

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问题:

尽快让用户的当前位置在阈值范围内,同时节省电池。

为什么问题是问题:

首先,android 有两个提供者;网络和 GPS。有时网络更好,有时 GPS 更好。

“更好”是指速度与准确率的比值。
如果我可以在不打开 GPS 的情况下几乎立即获得位置,我愿意牺牲几米的精度。

其次,如果您请求更新位置更改,则如果当前位置稳定,则不会发送任何内容。

谷歌在这里有一个确定“最佳”位置的例子:http:
//developer.android.com/guide/topics/location/obtaining-user-
location.html#BestEstimate
但我认为它还没有达到应有的水平/可能。

我有点困惑,为什么谷歌没有标准化的位置 API,开发人员不必关心位置的来源,你应该指定你想要的,手机应该为你选择。

我需要帮助:

我需要找到一种确定“最佳”位置的好方法,也许是通过一些启发式方法或通过一些第 3 方库。

这并不意味着确定最佳提供商!
我可能会使用所有提供商并从中挑选出最好的。

应用背景:

该应用程序将以固定的时间间隔(假设每 10 分钟左右)收集用户的位置并将其发送到服务器。
该应用程序应尽可能节省电池电量,并且该位置应具有 X (50-100?) 米的精度。

目标是以后能够在地图上绘制用户白天的路径,因此我需要足够的准确性。

杂项:

您认为期望和接受的准确度的合理值是多少?
我一直在使用 100m 作为接受和 30m 作为期望,这要求太多了吗?
我希望以后能够在地图上绘制用户的路径。
100m 的期望值和 500m 的接受度更好吗?

另外,现在每次位置更新我的 GPS 最多开启 60 秒,如果您在室内,精度可能为 200m,这是否太短而无法获得位置?


这是我当前的代码,任何反馈都表示赞赏(除了缺少 TODO 的错误检查):

protected void runTask() {
    final LocationManager locationManager = (LocationManager) context
            .getSystemService(Context.LOCATION_SERVICE);
    updateBestLocation(locationManager
            .getLastKnownLocation(LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER));
    updateBestLocation(locationManager
            .getLastKnownLocation(LocationManager.NETWORK_PROVIDER));
    if (getLocationQuality(bestLocation) != LocationQuality.GOOD) {
        Looper.prepare();
        setLooper(Looper.myLooper());
        // Define a listener that responds to location updates
        LocationListener locationListener = new LocationListener() {

            public void onLocationChanged(Location location) {
                updateBestLocation(location);
                if (getLocationQuality(bestLocation) != LocationQuality.GOOD)
                    return;
                // We're done
                Looper l = getLooper();
                if (l != null) l.quit();
            }

            public void onProviderEnabled(String provider) {}

            public void onProviderDisabled(String provider) {}

            public void onStatusChanged(String provider, int status,
                    Bundle extras) {
                // TODO Auto-generated method stub
                Log.i("LocationCollector", "Fail");
                Looper l = getLooper();
                if (l != null) l.quit();
            }
        };
        // Register the listener with the Location Manager to receive
        // location updates
        locationManager.requestLocationUpdates(
                LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER, 1000, 1, locationListener,
                Looper.myLooper());
        locationManager.requestLocationUpdates(
                LocationManager.NETWORK_PROVIDER, 1000, 1,
                locationListener, Looper.myLooper());
        Timer t = new Timer();
        t.schedule(new TimerTask() {

            @Override
            public void run() {
                Looper l = getLooper();
                if (l != null) l.quit();
                // Log.i("LocationCollector",
                // "Stopping collector due to timeout");
            }
        }, MAX_POLLING_TIME);
        Looper.loop();
        t.cancel();
        locationManager.removeUpdates(locationListener);
        setLooper(null);
    }
    if (getLocationQuality(bestLocation) != LocationQuality.BAD) 
        sendUpdate(locationToString(bestLocation));
    else Log.w("LocationCollector", "Failed to get a location");
}

private enum LocationQuality {
    BAD, ACCEPTED, GOOD;

    public String toString() {
        if (this == GOOD) return "Good";
        else if (this == ACCEPTED) return "Accepted";
        else return "Bad";
    }
}

private LocationQuality getLocationQuality(Location location) {
    if (location == null) return LocationQuality.BAD;
    if (!location.hasAccuracy()) return LocationQuality.BAD;
    long currentTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
    if (currentTime - location.getTime() < MAX_AGE
            && location.getAccuracy() <= GOOD_ACCURACY)
        return LocationQuality.GOOD;
    if (location.getAccuracy() <= ACCEPTED_ACCURACY)
        return LocationQuality.ACCEPTED;
    return LocationQuality.BAD;
}

private synchronized void updateBestLocation(Location location) {
    bestLocation = getBestLocation(location, bestLocation);
}

// Pretty much an unmodified version of googles example
protected Location getBestLocation(Location location,
        Location currentBestLocation) {
    if (currentBestLocation == null) {
        // A new location is always better than no location
        return location;
    }
    if (location == null) return currentBestLocation;
    // Check whether the new location fix is newer or older
    long timeDelta = location.getTime() - currentBestLocation.getTime();
    boolean isSignificantlyNewer = timeDelta > TWO_MINUTES;
    boolean isSignificantlyOlder = timeDelta < -TWO_MINUTES;
    boolean isNewer = timeDelta > 0;
    // If it's been more than two minutes since the current location, use
    // the new location
    // because the user has likely moved
    if (isSignificantlyNewer) {
        return location;
        // If the new location is more than two minutes older, it must be
        // worse
    } else if (isSignificantlyOlder) {
        return currentBestLocation;
    }
    // Check whether the new location fix is more or less accurate
    int accuracyDelta = (int) (location.getAccuracy() - currentBestLocation
            .getAccuracy());
    boolean isLessAccurate = accuracyDelta > 0;
    boolean isMoreAccurate = accuracyDelta < 0;
    boolean isSignificantlyLessAccurate = accuracyDelta > 200;
    // Check if the old and new location are from the same provider
    boolean isFromSameProvider = isSameProvider(location.getProvider(),
            currentBestLocation.getProvider());
    // Determine location quality using a combination of timeliness and
    // accuracy
    if (isMoreAccurate) {
        return location;
    } else if (isNewer && !isLessAccurate) {
        return location;
    } else if (isNewer && !isSignificantlyLessAccurate
            && isFromSameProvider) {
        return location;
    }
    return bestLocation;
}

/** Checks whether two providers are the same */
private boolean isSameProvider(String provider1, String provider2) {
    if (provider1 == null) {
        return provider2 == null;
    }
    return provider1.equals(provider2);
}

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2022-06-23

共1个答案

小编典典

看起来我们正在编写相同的应用程序;-)
这是我当前的实现。我的 GPS 上传器应用程序仍处于 beta 测试阶段,因此可能会有很多改进。但到目前为止它似乎工作得很好。

/**
 * try to get the 'best' location selected from all providers
 */
private Location getBestLocation() {
    Location gpslocation = getLocationByProvider(LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER);
    Location networkLocation =
            getLocationByProvider(LocationManager.NETWORK_PROVIDER);
    // if we have only one location available, the choice is easy
    if (gpslocation == null) {
        Log.d(TAG, "No GPS Location available.");
        return networkLocation;
    }
    if (networkLocation == null) {
        Log.d(TAG, "No Network Location available");
        return gpslocation;
    }
    // a locationupdate is considered 'old' if its older than the configured
    // update interval. this means, we didn't get a
    // update from this provider since the last check
    long old = System.currentTimeMillis() - getGPSCheckMilliSecsFromPrefs();
    boolean gpsIsOld = (gpslocation.getTime() < old);
    boolean networkIsOld = (networkLocation.getTime() < old);
    // gps is current and available, gps is better than network
    if (!gpsIsOld) {
        Log.d(TAG, "Returning current GPS Location");
        return gpslocation;
    }
    // gps is old, we can't trust it. use network location
    if (!networkIsOld) {
        Log.d(TAG, "GPS is old, Network is current, returning network");
        return networkLocation;
    }
    // both are old return the newer of those two
    if (gpslocation.getTime() > networkLocation.getTime()) {
        Log.d(TAG, "Both are old, returning gps(newer)");
        return gpslocation;
    } else {
        Log.d(TAG, "Both are old, returning network(newer)");
        return networkLocation;
    }
}

/**
 * get the last known location from a specific provider (network/gps)
 */
private Location getLocationByProvider(String provider) {
    Location location = null;
    if (!isProviderSupported(provider)) {
        return null;
    }
    LocationManager locationManager = (LocationManager) getApplicationContext()
            .getSystemService(Context.LOCATION_SERVICE);
    try {
        if (locationManager.isProviderEnabled(provider)) {
            location = locationManager.getLastKnownLocation(provider);
        }
    } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
        Log.d(TAG, "Cannot acces Provider " + provider);
    }
    return location;
}

编辑: 这是请求位置提供者定期更新的部分:

public void startRecording() {
    gpsTimer.cancel();
    gpsTimer = new Timer();
    long checkInterval = getGPSCheckMilliSecsFromPrefs();
    long minDistance = getMinDistanceFromPrefs();
    // receive updates
    LocationManager locationManager = (LocationManager) getApplicationContext()
            .getSystemService(Context.LOCATION_SERVICE);
    for (String s : locationManager.getAllProviders()) {
        locationManager.requestLocationUpdates(s, checkInterval,
                minDistance, new LocationListener() {

                    @Override
                    public void onStatusChanged(String provider,
                            int status, Bundle extras) {}

                    @Override
                    public void onProviderEnabled(String provider) {}

                    @Override
                    public void onProviderDisabled(String provider) {}

                    @Override
                    public void onLocationChanged(Location location) {
                        // if this is a gps location, we can use it
                        if (location.getProvider().equals(
                                LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER)) {
                            doLocationUpdate(location, true);
                        }
                    }
                });
        // //Toast.makeText(this, "GPS Service STARTED",
        // Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
        gps_recorder_running = true;
    }
    // start the gps receiver thread
    gpsTimer.scheduleAtFixedRate(new TimerTask() {

        @Override
        public void run() {
            Location location = getBestLocation();
            doLocationUpdate(location, false);
        }
    }, 0, checkInterval);
}

public void doLocationUpdate(Location l, boolean force) {
    long minDistance = getMinDistanceFromPrefs();
    Log.d(TAG, "update received:" + l);
    if (l == null) {
        Log.d(TAG, "Empty location");
        if (force)
            Toast.makeText(this, "Current location not available",
                    Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
        return;
    }
    if (lastLocation != null) {
        float distance = l.distanceTo(lastLocation);
        Log.d(TAG, "Distance to last: " + distance);
        if (l.distanceTo(lastLocation) < minDistance && !force) {
            Log.d(TAG, "Position didn't change");
            return;
        }
        if (l.getAccuracy() >= lastLocation.getAccuracy()
                && l.distanceTo(lastLocation) < l.getAccuracy() && !force) {
            Log.d(TAG,
                    "Accuracy got worse and we are still "
                      + "within the accuracy range.. Not updating");
            return;
        }
        if (l.getTime() <= lastprovidertimestamp && !force) {
            Log.d(TAG, "Timestamp not never than last");
            return;
        }
    }
    // upload/store your location here
}

需要考虑的事项:

  • 不要太频繁地请求 GPS 更新,它会耗尽电池电量。我目前使用 30 分钟作为我的应用程序的默认值。

  • 添加“到最后一个已知位置的最小距离”检查。没有这个,当 GPS 不可用并且从手机信号塔对位置进行三角测量时,您的点将“跳跃”。或者您可以检查新位置是否超出上一个已知位置的准确度值。

2022-06-23